Chapters in dairy cattle judging may enter a team of three to five participants. Team scores are determined by totalling the three highest individual scores. Cattle are placed in classes of four animals from the following breeds: Brown Swiss, Guernsey or Holstein. The classes may range in age from heifers to mature cows. Participants must place four of the above classes on type and are required to complete a linear evaluation of five cows. Also, judgers must complete two of the following exercises: a Pedigree Class, a Sire Selection exercise, a Herd Record Evaluation or a written Dairy Management test. In reasons classes, participants have 15 minutes to place the class; 12 minutes to prepare for reasons, and no more than two minutes to deliver them. Oral reasons are required in only two of the classes. Judgers may view the animal from all angles but not handle them. In the pedigree class, the pedigrees of four cows/buls will be given for evaluation and placing by the participant. The sire selection exercise consists of selecting for the mating of a dairy cow and appropriate bull. Four bulls are ranked as the best choice to which the cow should be bred. The herd record evaluation requires analysis of individual cow production records of 50-75 cow herd.